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Moving on down the line, today we continue our series on audio effects and editing tools. In the past few articles we’ve such effects as reverb, flange, delay, and noise gate. If you enjoy dabbling in audio production, you’re going to enjoy today’s article. We’ll be discussing compression, which is instrumental in the audio production arena. And also we will also be discussing ring modulation, which is a bit more fun and flexible audio effect. So, in today’s article get ready to learn about both, compression, and ring modulation. Let’s discuss how these effects work and why they work the way they do.

Compression Compressors reduce the dynamic range of an audio signal, if its amplitude exceeds a set threshold. The amount of range reduction is determined by a set ratio. If the ratio was set to 6:1, the dB would need to be increased by 6 to increase the output signal by 1 dB over the threshold. The way that a compressor reduces dynamic range is by using a variable-gain amplifier, which reduces the gain of an audio signal. Analog compressors typically carry this out by using a voltage controlled amplifier, which reduces the gain as the input signal’s power increases. Digitally, compression is carried out via DSP (digital signal processing), and this is the most modern version of the effect. The main use of compression is to make music sound louder without increasing its peak amplitude. Compressing the peak, (loudest signal), allows you to increase the overall gain without exceeding the dynamic limits of your reproduction device. Compression is widely used in TV and radio, allowing maximum perceived volume, without going over the strict limits imposed by most broadcasting companies.

Ring Modulation Ring modulation is achieved by multiplying two audio signals, with one signal being a simple waveform such as a sine wave. They combine the two signals, outputting the sum and difference of said signals. Ring modulation is related to amplitude modulation and frequency mixing, and it produces a signal rich in overtones. It is well suited to produce metallic and bell-type sounds. Modern ring modulators, like modern compressors, use digital signal processing to produce the effect. Using DSP to do this produces a mathematically perfect signal output, which some musicians do not like. You can come up with some interesting harmonics using a ring modulator by changing the frequency of the two input waveforms.

This is the third installment in my continuing series on audio effects and engineering tools. We discussed compressors and ring modulators today, a couple of very interesting and deep effects. I learned a lot myself, so I hope that you did as well. We will be continuing this series indefinitely, until we run out of effects! I hope that this has shed a little light on these two amazing pieces of equipment, ultimately making your next music project a bit more interesting and productive.

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Looking for more information on Pioneer car electronics product introductions and lineup? You’ve come to the right place. See the latest in iPod control, hands-free Bluetooth, in-car DVD players, GPS Navigation as well as incredible speakers, subwoofers and amplifiers to make your ride sound great.

I’ll tell you about why I think Pioneer car audio is the best.

Every year, Pioneer gathers its top installers to compete in its revered Sound Build-off. In 2010, the DEX-P99RS was selected as the in-dash receiver of choice for the competition. See what these Stage 4 retailers have to say about the DEX-P99RS and its remarkable tuning capabilities.

The key to a reference-quality headunit should be simple: it has to reproduce the original source material authentically and naturally. In addition, it must provide powerful digital tools to allow the installer to setup and tune the system. Pioneer has a long heritage of award-winning sound quality headunits, starting almost 2 decades ago with the ODR (Optical Digital Reference) system. The DEX-P99RS is the grandchild of that system, featuring complex technologies and utmost sound purity that shatter your expectations. It truly must be “heard” to be believed.

L/R Independent 31-Band Digital Equalizer
Precisely control the in-cabin acoustics with the built-in 31-band Digital Equalizer. Unparalleled flexibility is provided through either Left/Right independent setup, or for easier setup L/R common is available. Adjusts with 1/3 octave step from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, and there are 5 custom memories to allow multiple setups.

Auto Time Alignment and Auto EQ
Time alignment automatically estimates the delay from each speaker to driver’s position and adjusts speaker sound output timing accordingly by 1/4 inch differences, so that sound from all speakers reaches the driver’s ears in perfect sync.

Auto EQ tailors specific musical characteristics according to taste, uses a microphone to monitor and analyze acoustics, then automatically fi ne-tunes all frequency bandwidths and front and rear speaker digital parametric equalization. These entire processes occur in 543 seamless steps in just about 5 minutes.

32-Bit Binary Floating-Point DSP
The DEX-P99RS incorporates 32-Bit Binary Floating-Point DSP for high-precision and highspeed sound processing. The unique use of 32-bit “floating point” DSP offers significantly higher accuracy, especially a high frequencies and low signal levels. This new DSP is five times faster than the equivalent DSP used in the DEH-P800PRS or DEH-P880PRS models.

Copper-Plated Chassis
Copper-plated chassis eliminates magnetic induction noise.

L/R Symmetric PCB
The entire circuit board is painstakingly designed for utmost sound quality. Circuit trace path lengths are equalized and kept as short as possible, and components are carefully laid out and shielded to prevent RF noise or interference.

Custom-Made Capacitor
When you name something “Reference Standard”, then off-the-shelf components just will not do. Pioneer has sourced custom-made audiophile grade capacitors and other components to ensure the highest quality.

Digital Direct of iPod Music
The DEX-P99RS features a high-end first: a direct digital bit pipe from the iPod/iPhone to the DSP and DAC. What does this mean? For the first time, you can use an iPod as source material, without sacrificing sound quality.

The key is using Apple Lossless (ALAC) to “rip” all of your music. The result is identical to the same output from an audio CD – but you can store your entire music library on the iPod, instead of just a single album!

L/R Independent High Volt Volume Circuit
When you are talking high-end audio, one is never enough. The DEX-P99RS features a custom-made electric volume driven by a dual-sided power supply (rarely found in regular headunits), which provides overwhelming dynamic range and high S/N (Signal-to-Noise) ratio.

New High-Precision Sound Master Clock Circuitry
The latest integrated circuits require superior clock signal quality to handle digital data accurately without distortion at ever-higher speeds. Imagine the old fi lm projectors from school – if the timing was off , the image and sound was distorted. The same thing can happen with digital sound, thus the importance of the sound master clock.

Inherited from ODR technology, this is the first use in a regular headunit. The Sound Master Clock Circuitry generates clock waveforms to read and process digital signals with ultra-precision, and eliminate jitter noise in transmission. The result is faithful playback of the original source

Linear Technology’s High Performance, High-Slew Rate OP Amp
The DEX-P99RS features this Linear Technology Corporation amplifier used in high-end home audio for its precise gain and sound linearity characteristics.

24-Bit AKM DACs
. Off ers S/N ratio as high as 120 dB and high durability to jitter.
. Used for high, mid, low and SW channel (1 each).
. Give superior dynamic range and quietness.

I love Pioneer car audio, the feature the best sound quality and the best selection of value priced gear for your car or suv.